Open subtreeCensus Open subtreeRegistrar General Open subtreeTNA Enumerators' Books Open subtreeTNA Census - Other TNA Registration TNA Maps Open subtreeEssays Open subtreeLegislation Bibliography


G. B. Adams, 'Language in Ulster, 1820–1850', Ulster Folklife, 19 (1973), 50-55.

G. B. Adams, 'The 1851 language census in the North of Ireland', Ulster Folklife, 20 (1974), 65-70.

Benedict Anderson, Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (London: Verso, 1983).

Margo Anderson, The American census: a social history (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1988).

Michael Anderson, Family structure in nineteenth century Lancashire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).

Michael Anderson, 'Standard tabulation procedures for the census enumerators books, 1851-1891', in E. A. Wrigley, ed., Nineteenth century society (Cambridge: CUP, 1972), 134-145.

Michael Anderson, Approaches to the history of the Western family, 1500-1914 (London: Macmillan, 1980).

Michael Anderson, 'Mis-specification of servant occupations in the 1851 census: a problem revisited', Local Population Studies, 60 (1998), 58-64.

Anon, 'Report to the council of the Statistical Society of London, from the committee appointed to consider the best mode of taking the census of the United Kingdom in 1841', ournal of the Statistical Society of London, 3 (1840), 72-102.

Anon, 'The Gaelic Census of 1881', Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 10 (1881), 51-58.

D. Arel, 'Language categories in censuses: backward- or forward-looking', in D. I. Kertzer and D. Arel, eds, Census and identity. The politics of race, ethnicity, and language in national censuses (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 92-120.

Tom Arkell, 'Identity of census enumerators - Cornwall in 1851', Local Population Studies, 53 (1994), 70-75.

Alan Armstrong, Stability and change in an English country town. A social study of York, 1801-51 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974).

W. A. Armstrong, 'Social structure from the early census returns', in E. A. Wrigley, ed., An introduction to English historical demography (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966).

Elizabeth Baigent, 'Larcom, Sir Thomas Aiskew, first baronet (1801–1897)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Dudley Baines, Migration in a mature economy. Emigration and internal migration in England and Wales, 1861-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

J. A. Baines, 'On census-taking and its limitations', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 63 (1900), 41-71.

J. A. Banks, 'The social structure of nineteenth century England as seen through the census', in R. Lawton, ed., The census and social structure. An interpretative guide to nineteenth century censuses for England and Wales (London: Frank Cass, 1978), 179-223.

M. Barke, 'An 1811 census manuscript from North Shields', Local Historian, 34 (2004), 28-36.

Theo Barker and Michael Drake, eds, Population and society in Britain, 1850–1980 (London: Batsford, 1982).

R. M. Benwell and G. A. Benwell, 'Interpreting the census returns for rural Anglesey and Llyn', Anglesey Antiquarian Society Transactions, 111-36. (1973).

R. M. Benwell and G. A. Benwell, 'The 1851 Census in the Llandyrnog subdistrict', Denbighshire Historical Transactions, 27 (1978), 199-201.

R. M. Benwell and G. A. Benwell, 'The Llandyrnog householder's schedules for the 1851 Census', Local Population Studies, 28 (1982), 89-90.

Ruth Matteson Blackmore, Cumulative index to the annual catalogues of Her Majesty's Stationery Office publications, 1922–1972 (2 vols) (Washington [D.C.]/Inverness: Carrollton Press, 1976).

Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: the Power of Place (London: Pimlico, 2003).

L. Bryder, 'Not always one and the same thing': the registration of tuberculosis deaths in Britain, 1900–1950', Social History of Medicine, 9 (1996), 253-265.

Peter Buck, 'People who counted: political arithmetic in the eighteenth century', Isis, 73 (1982), 28-45.

V. C. Burton, 'A floating population: vessel enumeration returns in censuses, 1851-1921', Local Population Studies, 38 (1987), 36-43.

Martin Campbell-Kelly, 'Information technology and organisational change in the British census, 1801–1911', Information Systems Research, 7 (1996), 22-36.

Leslie Clarkson and Margaret Crawford, eds, Famine and disease in Ireland (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2005).

William Cobbett, Rural Rides (Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1983).

B. I. Coleman, 'The incidence of education in mid-century', in E. A. Wrigley, ed., Nineteenth-Century Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 397-410.

B. I. Coleman, The Church of England in the mid-nineteenth century: a social geography (London: Historical Association, 1980).

B. Collins and M. Anderson, 'The administration of the 1851 census in the county of East Lothian', Local Population Studies, 20 (1978), 32-37.

K. H. Connell, The population of Ireland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950).

E. Margaret Crawford, Counting the people. A survey of the Irish censuses, 1813-1913 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003).

Michael J. Cullen, 'The making of the Civil Registration Act of 1836', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 25 (1974), 39-59.

Michael J. Cullen, The statistical movement in early Victorian Britain: the foundations of empirical social research (Hassocks: Harvester, 1975).

Bruce Curtis, The politics of population. State formation, statistics and the census of Canada, 1840–1875 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001).

R. Davidson, Whitehall and the labour problem in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain (London: Croom Helm, 1985).

Herman Diedericks and Marjan Balkestein, eds, Occupational titles and their classification: the case of the textile trade in past times (St. Katharinen: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, 1995).

Michael Drake, 'The census, 1801–1891', Nineteenth-century society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 7-46.

Michael Drake and Dennis R. Mills, 'A note on census enumerators', Local Population Studies Society Newsletter, 29 (2001), 3-9.

H. J. Dubester, National censuses and vital statistics in Europe, 1918-1939. An annotated bibliography with 1940-1947 supplement (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Census Library Project., 1948).

Reginald Duffield, 'Census taking', Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, 35 (1901), 341-361.

G. R. Elton, Policy and police : the enforcement of the Reformation in the age of Thomas Cromwell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).

J. M. Eyler, 'William Farr on the cholera : the sanitarian's disease theory and the statistician's method', Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 28 (1973), 79-100.

J. M. Eyler, Victorian social medicine : the ideas and methods of William Farr (Baltimore ; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979).

[L. M. Feery], Guides to official sources. No. 2. Census reports of Great Britain, 1801-1931 (London: HMSO, 1951).

C. D. Field, 'The 1851 Religious Census of Great Britain: a bibliographical guide for local and regional historians', The Local Historian, 27 (1997), 197-217.

S. E. Finer, The life and times of Sir Edwin Chadwick (London: Methuen, 1952).

G. Fitzgerald, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts: 1771–1781 to 1861–1871', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 84c (1984), 117-155.

J. Foster, Class struggle and the industrial revolution: early industrial capitalism in three English towns (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1974).

M. Foucault, 'The subject and power', in H. L. Dreyfus and P. Rabinow, eds, Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (Brighton: Harvester, 1982), 208-226.

M. Foucault, 'Governmentality', in G. Burchell, C. Gordon and P. Miller, eds, The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 87-104.

P. M. Froggatt, 'The census in Ireland of 1813-15', Irish Historical Studies, 14 (1965), 227-235.

P. M. Froggatt, 'The demographic work of Sir William Wilde', Irish Journal of Medical Science, 6 (1965), 213-230.

P. M. Froggatt, 'Sir William Wilde, 1815–1876. A centenary appreciation. Wilde's place in medicine ', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 77 (1977), 261-278.

P. M. Froggatt, 'Sir William Wilde, 1815–1876: Demographer and Irish Medical Historian', in Eiléan Ni Chuilleanáin, ed., The Wilde Legacy (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003), 51-68.

B. Gainer, The alien invasion: the origins of the Aliens Act of 1905 (London: Heinemann, 1972).

E. Garrett, A. Reid, K. Schurer and S. Szreter, Changing family size in England and Wales. Place, class and demography, 1891-1911 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

General Register Office, National registration. Statistics of population on 29 September 1939 by age, sex and marital condition: report and tables (London: HMSO, 1944).

J. S. W. Gibson, Census returns, 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, on microfilm: a directory to local holdings (Banbury: Gulliver Press, 1979).

J. S. W. Gibson and Federation of Family History Societies, Bishops' transcripts and marriage licences, bonds and allegations : a guide to their location and indexes (Bury: Federation of Family History Societies, 2001).

Anthony Giddens, The nation-state and violence: volume two of a contemporary critique of historical materialism (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987).

Anthony Giddens, A contemporary critique of historical materialism (London: Macmillan, 1995).

George Gilchrist, ed., Annan parish censuses, 1801–1821 (Edinburgh: Scottish Record Society, 1975).

D. V. Glass, 'A note on the under-registration of births in Britain in the nineteenth-century', Population Studies, 5 (1951), 70-88.

D. V. Glass, The development of population statistics. A collective reprint of materials concerning the history of census taking and vital registration in England and Wales. With an introduction by ... D. V. Glass (Gregg International Publishers: Farnborough, Hants, 1973).

D. V. Glass, Numbering the people: the eighteenth-century population controversy and the development of census and vital statistics in Britain (London ; New York: Gordon & Cremonesi, 1978).

D. V. Glass and P. A. M. Taylor, Population and emigration (Dublin: Irish University Press, 1976).

J. M. Goldstrom, 'Education in England and Wales in 1851: the Education Census of Great Britain, 1851', in R. Lawton, ed., The Census and Social Structure: an Interpretative Guide to Nineteenth Century Censuses for England and Wales (London: Frank Cass, 1978), 224-240.

John Grenham, Tracing your Irish ancestors : the complete guide (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1999).

Thomas Wrigley Grimshaw, Remarks on the prevalence and distribution of fever in Dublin, illustrated by a map, tables and diagrams, with appendices on sanitary matters in that city (Dublin: Fannin & Co., 1872).

Thomas Wrigley Grimshaw, Facts and figures about Ireland (Dublin: Hodges, Figges & Co., 1893).

Thomas Wrigley Grimshaw and J. W. Moore, 'Pythogenic pneumonia', Dublin Journal of Medical Science (1875).

Thomas Wrigley et al. Grimshaw, Manual of public health for Ireland (Dublin: Fannin & Co., 1875).

M. Haines, Fertility and occupation. Population patterns in industrialisaiton (New York: Academic Press, 1979).

Christopher Hamlin, Public health and social justice in the age of Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

E. A. Hammel and P. Laslett, 'Comparing household structure over time and between cultures', Comparative studies in Society and History, 16 (1974), 73-110.

A. Hardy, ''Death is the cure of all disease': using the GRO cause of death statistics for 1837-1920', Social History of Medicine, 7 (1994), 472-492.

T. Hareven, Family time and industrial time. The relationship between the family and work in a New England industrial community (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

C. E. Harvey and Jon Press, eds, Databases in historical research: theory, methods and applications (London: Macmillan, 1996).

E. Higgs, 'Counting heads and jobs : science as an occupation in the Victorian census', History of Science, 23 (1985), 335-349.

E. Higgs, 'Women, occupation and work in the nineteenth century census', History Workshop Journal, 23 (1986), 59-80.

E. Higgs, 'The struggle for the occupational census, 1841-1911', in R. M. MacLeod, ed., Government and expertise: specialists, administrators and professionals, 1860-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 73-86.

E. Higgs, Making sense of the census : the manuscript returns for England and Wales, 1801-1901 (London: HMSO, 1989).

E. Higgs, 'Structuring the past: the occupational and household classification of nineteenth-century census data ', in E. Mawdsley, N. J. Morgan, L. R. Richmond and R. H. Trainor, eds, History and Computing III (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), 67-73.

E. Higgs, 'The Public Record Office, the historian, and information technology', in G. H. Martin and P. Spufford, eds, The records of the nation: the Public Record Office, 1838–1988, the British Record Society, 1888–1988 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1990), 101–110.

E. Higgs, 'Diseases, febrile poisons, and statistics: the census as a medical survey', Social History of Medicine, 4 (1991), 465-478.

E. Higgs, 'A cuckoo in the nest?: The origins of civil registration and state medical statistics in England and Wales', Continuity and Change, 11 (1996), 115-134.

E. Higgs, 'The statistical Big Bang of 1911: ideology, technological innovation and the production of medical statistics', Social History of Medicine,, 9 (1996), 409-426.

E. Higgs, A clearer sense of the census : the Victorian censuses and historical research (London: H.M.S.O, 1996).

E. Higgs, 'Medical statistics, patronage and the state: the development of the MRC Statistical Unit, 1911–1948 ', Medical History, 44 (2000), 323-340.

E. Higgs, 'The Annual Report of the Registrar General, 1839-1920: a textual history', in E. Magnello and A. Hardy, eds, The road to medical statistics (Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 2002), 55-76.

E. Higgs, 'The General Register Office and the tabulation of data, 1837–1939', in Martin Campbell Kelly, Mary Croarkin, John Fauvel and Raymond Flood, eds, , eds, The history of mathematical tables. From Sumer to spreadsheets (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 209-234.

E. Higgs, 'The linguistic construction of social and medical categories in the work of the English General Register Office', in S. Szreter, A. Dharmalingam and H. Sholkamy, eds, Categories and Contexts - Anthropological and Historical Studies in Critical Demography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 86-106.

E. Higgs, Life, death and statistics: civil registration, censuses and the work of the General Register Office, 1837-1952 (Hatfield: Local Population Studies, 2004).

E. Higgs, The information state in England: the central collection of information on citizens, 1500–2000 (London: Palgrave, 2004).

E. Higgs, Making sense of the census revisited. Census records for England and Wales, 1801–1901 — a Handbook for Historical Researchers (London: The National Archives and the Institute of Historical Reasearch, 2005).

A. Hinde, England's population. A history since the Domesday survey (London: Hodder Arnold, 2003).

Reginald H. Hooker, 'Modes of census-taking in the British dominions', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 57 (1894), 289-358.

Pamela Horn, 'Oxfordshire and the census of 1811', Cake and Cockhorse, 8 (1980), 102-110.

C. H. Humphery-Smith, The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers (Chichester: Phillimore, 1994).

Thomas E. Jordan, An imaginative empiricist. Thomas Aiskew Larcom (1801–1879) and Victorian Ireland (Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, 2002).

Patrick Joyce, The rule of freedom; liberalism and the modern city (London: Verso, 2003).

B. Keith-Lucas, The unreformed local government system (London: Croom Helm, 1980).

J. Knodel, 'An exercise in household composition for the use of in courses in historical demography', Local Population Studies, 23 (1979), 10-23.

R. Lambert, Sir John Simon, 1816-1904, and English social administration (London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1963).

Eric E. Lampard, 'The urbanizing world', in H. J. Dyos and Michael Wolff, eds, eds, The Victorian city: images and realities, volume I (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976).

P. Laslett, Family life and illicit love in earlier generations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

J. Lee, 'On the accuracy of the pre-famine Irish censuses', in J. M. Goldstrom and L. A. Clarkson, eds, Irish population, economy, and society: essays in honour of the late K. H. Connell (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981), 37-56.

C. Lewin and Margaret de Valois, 'History of actuarial tables', in M. C. Kelly, M. Croarkin, J. Fauvel and R. Flood, eds, From Sumer to the spreadsheets: the curious history of tables (Oxford: OUP, 2003), 79-104.

V. D. Lipman, Local Government areas 1834-1945 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1949).

S. Lumas, 'Women enumerators', Local Population Studies Society Newsletter, 14 (1994), 3-5.

[Henry W. Macrosty and James Bonar], Annals of the Royal Statistical Society, 1834–1934 (London: Royal Statistical Society, 1934).

B. Mallet, British Budgets: 1887-88 to 1912-13 (London: Macmillan, 1913).

B. Mallet, 'Is England in danger of racial decline?', National Review (1922), 843-853.

B. Mallet, 'Registration in relation to eugenics', Eugenics Review (1922), 14.

Dennis Mills and Carol Pearce, People and places in the Victorian Census. A review and bibliography of publications based substantially on the manuscript census enumerators' books, 1841–1911 ([n.p.]: Historical Geography Research Group, 1989).

M. Nissel, People count : a history of the General Register Office (London: H.M.S.O., 1987).

Office of Population Censuses and Surveys & General Register Office, E., Guide to Census Reports, Great Britain 1801-1966 (London: HMSO, 1977).

D. H. Parkinson, 'Comments on the underenumeration of the U.S. census, 1850-1880', Social Science History, 15 (1991), 509-516.

M. Pelling, Cholera, fever and English medicine, 1825-1865 (Oxford (etc.): Oxford University Press, 1978).

W. C. Rickman, Biographical memoir of John Rickman, Esq., F.R.S., etc., etc ([London]: privately published, 1841).

S. A. Royle, 'Irish manuscript census records: a neglected source of information', Irish Geography, 11 (1978), 110-125.

A. Rusnock, Vital accounts: quantifying health and population in eighteenth-century England and France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

R. S. Schofield, 'The measure of literacy in pre-industrial England', in J. Goody, ed., Literacy in traditional societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 311-335.

K. D. M. Snell and P. S. Ell, Rival Jerusalems: the Geography of Victorian Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

D. J. Steel and A. E. F. Steel, Sources for Scottish genealogy and family history (London: Published for the Society of Genealogists, Phillimore, 1970).

W. B. Stevens, Education, literacy and society, 1830–70: the geography of diversity in provincial England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987).

S. Szreter, 'The GRO and the public health movement in Britain 1837-1914', Social History of Medicine, 4 (1991), 435-464.

A. J. Taylor, 'The taking of the census, 1801-1951', British Medical Journal, 1 (1951), 715-720.

Michael S. Teitelbaum, 'Birth under-registration in the constituent counties of England and Wales: 1841–1910', Population Studies, 28 (1974), 329-43.

D. M. Thompson, 'The religious census of 1851', in R. Lawton, ed., The Census and Social Structure: an Interpretative Guide to Nineteenth Century Censuses for England and Wales (London: Frank Cass, 1978), 241-288.

G. S. L. Tucker, 'Irish fertility ratios before the famine', Economic History Review, 23 (1970), 267-84.

John Vincent, Literacy and popular culture: England 1750–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

O. Williams, Life and letters of John Rickman, Lamb's friend the census-taker (London: Constable, 1912).

R. Woods, The demography of Victorian England and Wales (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

B. Woollings, 'An Orsett census enumerator', Local Population Studies, 56 (1996), 54-59.

E. A. Wrigley, 'Men on the land and men in the countryside: employment in agriculture in early-nineteenth-century England', in L. Bonfield, R. M. Smith and K. Wrightson, eds, The world we have gained. Histories of population and social structure (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986), 295-336.

E. A. Wrigley, The Early English Censuses (London: Oxford University Press, 2011).

E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield, The population history of England, 1541-1871. A reconstruction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

E. A. Wrigley, R. S. Davies, J. E. Oeppen and R. S. Schofield, English population history from family reconstitution, 1580-1837 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

F. A. Youngs, Guide to the local administrative units of England (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979).

F. A. Youngs, Guide to the local administrative units of England (London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1991).